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Injury - kidney and ureter

Definition

Injury to the kidney and ureter is damage to the organs of the upper urinary tract.

Alternative Names

Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury

Causes

The kidneys are located in the flank (back of the upper abdomen at either side of the spinal column). They are deep in the abdomen and are protected by the spine, lower rib cage, and strong muscles of the back. This location protects the kidneys from many outside forces.

The kidneys are well-padded for a reason -- they have a large blood supply. Injury can lead to severe bleeding.

Kidneys may be injured by damage to the blood vessels that supply or drain them, including:

Kidney injuries may also be caused by:

The ureters are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Uretral injuries may be caused by:

Symptoms

Acute or emergency symptoms may include:

Long-term (chronic) symptoms may include:

If only one kidney is affected and the other kidney is healthy, you may not have any symptoms.

Exams and Tests

The doctor or nurse will examine you and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms. You will be asked about any recent illness and if you have come into contact with toxic substances.

The exam may show:

Tests that may be done include:

Treatment

The goals are to treat emergency symptoms and prevent or treat complications. You may need to stay in a hospital.

Treatments for a kidney injury may include:

Sometimes, surgery is needed. This may include:

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well you do depends on the the cause and severity of the injury.

Sometimes, the kidney starts working properly again. Sometimes, kidney failure occurs.

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of an injury to the kidney or ureter, especially if you have a history of:

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have decreased urine output after a kidney injury. This may be a symptom of kidney failure.

Prevention

You can help prevent injury to the kidneys and ureter by following these precautions:

References

Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011: chap 122.

Santucci RA, Doumanian LR. Upper urinary tract injury. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 42.


Review Date: 9/24/2012
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Louis S. Liou, MD, PhD, Chief of Urology, Cambridge Health Alliance, Visiting Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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